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USE1.3-B UNIX File System Tree


The UNIX file system is organized hierarchically according to the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard.

UNIX follows the philosophy that everything is a file. Directories are indicated with a “/” separator and start from the root directory “/” and different devices are linked to this tree.

Files and directories can be referred to either using absolute or relative file names.

Typically, several elementary programs are pre-installed and allow access and manipulation of files and directories.


  • To understand the file system layout and perform typical file operations to access and manipulate the file system.


  • Describe the organization of a hierarchical file system.
  • Explain the basic UNIX permission model and metadata of files.
  • Describe the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard and the relevance of the directories:
    • etc
    • home
    • opt
    • lib and /usr/lib
    • bin and /usr/bin
    • sbin and /usr/sbin
    • tmp
  • Utilize tools to navigate and traverse the file system:
    • ls (-R, -l)
    • cd
    • pushd/popd
    • stat
  • Use tools to read files:
    • cat
    • head/tail
    • less/more
    • cmp
  • Utilize tools to manipulate the file system:
    • mkdir/rmdir
    • touch
    • cp/mv
    • ln
  • Utilize tools to identify and manipulate permissions:
    • chmod
    • chown/chgrp


skill-tree/use/1/3/b.txt · Last modified: 2020/07/19 21:21 by lucy